Vol. 44, No. 1
Grounding Supply Chain Management in Resource-Advantage Theory (invited paper)
A key issue for strategic supply chain management research is whether purchasing can be a source of long-term competitive advantage. Recent resource based works in strategic management suggest that purchasing cannot be a source of long-term competitive advantage. In contrast, recent works in supply chain management suggest that purchasing can be such a source. This article explains why works in strategic management and supply chain management come to such radically different conclusions on purchasing strategy. Specifically, this article points out that the negative conclusion concerning purchasing strategy is derived from theories of competition based on the neoclassical, equilibrium economics research tradition. Therefore, the positive case for strategic purchasing needs to be grounded in a research tradition that provides a clean break from the neoclassical, equilibrium economics research tradition. The authors discuss the characteristics of what has come to be labeled "the resource-advantage research tradition" and offer it as an appropriate grounding for purchasing strategy, in particular, and supply chain management, in general.
Shelby D. Hunt, Ph.D., is Jerry S. Rawls and P.W. Horn Professor of Marketing in the Rawls College of Business at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas
Donna F. Davis, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Marketing in the Rawls College of Business at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas.
Unraveling the Food Supply Chain: Strategic Insights from China and the 2007 Recalls (invited paper)
The March 2007 pet food recall and a rapid progression of comparable incidents have exposed the real potential for food supply chain contamination and disruptions. When organizations source via multilayered supply chains with poor visibility they are particularly vulnerable. In this paper, we develop a conceptual framework called the "Six Ts" of supply chain quality management — traceability, transparency, testability, time, trust and training — which are relevant for any product but are especially critical to the preservation of public welfare through a safe food supply. We describe the globalization of food supply chains and present data on the trends of U.S. food import volumes, both in aggregate and specifically from China. We also highlight the inherent difficulties and risks posed by global food supply chains, using those originating in China as an example. Finally, we provide a research agenda and questions to be addressed regarding the application of the six Ts in global food supply chain management.
Aleda V. Roth, Ph.D., is the Burlington Industries Distinguished Professor in Supply Chain Management in the College of Business and Behavioral Science at Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina,
Andy A. Tsay, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor in the Leavey School of Business at Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, California,
Madeleine E. Pullman, Ph.D., is the Willamette Industries Professor of Supply Chain Management in the School of Business at Portland State University, Portland, Oregon
John V. Gray, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor in the Fisher College of Business at The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
Structure-Infrastructure Alignment: The Relationship between TQM Orientation and the Adoption of Supplier-Facing Electronic Commerce among Manufacturers
Total Quality Management (TQM) is widely adopted in industry and well studied in academe. It includes a philosophy and set of practices for supply management. However, these elements evolved before widespread adoption of the Internet, which transforms the supply management landscape by presenting various tools for organizations to select and manage suppliers. Therefore an important research undertaking today is to understand how the Internet has affected manufacturers that embrace TQM. As part of this undertaking, we examine the relationship between TQM orientation and the adoption of eight supplier-facing e-commerce applications. We propose that certain supplier facing e-commerce applications enhance competition among suppliers, while others enhance supplier relationships. Drawing upon strategic contingency theory, we hypothesize that TQM orientation is negatively associated with the adoption of the first category of application and is positively associated with the adoption of the second category. Logistic regression was used to test hypotheses using survey data collected from manufacturers located in six countries and three industries. The results show that organizations which have heavily embraced TQM do use e-commerce somewhat differently from other organizations. However, the results also point out potentially troubling inconsistencies between e-commerce adoption and other elements of strategy.
Xiaowen Huang, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor in the Richard T. Farmer School of Business at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio,
Thomas F. Gattiker, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor in the Department of Information Technology and Supply Chain Management at Boise State University, Boise, Idaho
Roger G. Schroeder, Ph.D., is the Donaldson Chair in Operations Management in the Carlson School of Management at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Development of Cooperative Norms in the Buyer-Supplier Relationship: The Chinese Experience
Cooperative norms are a critical governance mechanism of the buyer-supplier relationship. Prior studies generally assume that cooperative norms are preexisting and utilize norms as an antecedent to other constructs. Little attention has been paid to the antecedents of the decision to develop cooperative norms. In this paper, we draw upon transaction cost economics and resource dependence theory to develop a model that depicts the key factors that determine cooperative norms. Based on the results derived from an empirical study of 278 Chinese companies, we find that these factors significantly impact cooperative norms. The study also reveals that cooperative norms positively influence suppliers' performance, which subsequently affects buyers' satisfaction.
Shaohan Cai, Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the Faculty of Business Administration at Lakehead University, Thunder Bay (Ontario), Canada
Zhilin Yang, Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the Marketing Department at the City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China).
Timing and Extent of Supplier Integration in New Product Development: A Contingency Approach
While research on internal integration in new product development (NPD) has progressed to the examination of contingency factors that assess adequate levels of integration, contingency models examining the appropriate timing and level of integration with suppliers in NPD have yet to be empirically tested. The purpose of this study is to explore how contingency factors affect the timing and level of supplier integration into NPD, and how varying levels of integration affect project performance. The study uses structural equation modeling to analyze data on 116 NPD projects employing supplier integration sampled from international organizations representing a wide variety of industries. Results suggest that newer products signify the need for earlier supplier integration, while positive prior experience with the supplier and the procurement of highly strategic items indicate the need for tighter integration. When employed, these patterns of activity result in high levels of perceived NPD performance.
Delvon B. Parker (doctoral candidate), Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan,
George A. Zsidisin, Ph.D., is a Visiting Scholar in the Department of Management at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado
Gary L. Ragatz, Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the Department of Supply Chain Management at Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan.