Journal of Supply Chain Management

Article Index - Results

A valuable reference tool, the Article Index is a comprehensive list of articles that have appeared in the Journal of Supply Chain Management (formerly International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, Journal of Purchasing & Materials Management and Journal of Purchasing). Articles are organized by subject for easy locating and study.

Journal Article Index
Term selected: Supplier Relationships and Management

  • A Case Study of NUMMI and Its Suppliers, Vol. 26, No. 4 (Fall 1990), p. 15.

    This article is not available online.
  • "A Taxonomy of Supply Networks" Members Only Content, Vol. 37, No. 4 (Fall 2001), p. 21.

    There has been limited research into how different types of supply networks can be created and operated. This article develops a taxonomy of supply networks with a particular focus on managing network creation and operation. The taxonomy is based on a review of network literature from various academic perspectives and extensive empirical data across a variety of industry sectors including automotive, fast-moving consumer goods, electronics, pharmaceuticals, and communications technologies. The main differentiating factors for classifying a matrix of four types of supply network are found to be the degree of supply network dynamics and the degree of focal company supply network influence. Network characteristics and different patterns of networking activities are identified for each type of supply network.
  • "An Agency Theory Investigation of Supply Risk Management" Members Only Content, Vol. 39, No. 3 (Summer 2003), p. 15.

    Managing supply risk is an essential element of the overall supply management task. As the complexity of risk management has increased, responsiveness seems dominated by varying the level of inventory and using multiple supply sources as means of creating buffers. This research uses the framework of agency theory in managing supplier behaviors as a means to reduce supply risk and the impact of detrimental events. Empirical results indicate that purchasing organizations address various sources of supply risk by implementing management techniques that reduce the likelihood that detrimental events will occur. Firm size, purchases as a percentage of sales, and industry characteristics were also found to influence the manner in which supplier behaviors are managed.
  • An Empirical Investigation of Knowledge-Sharing in Networks, Vol. 41, No. 4 (Fall 2005), p. 17.

    Given the growing importance of knowledge-sharing, the primary purpose of this research is to develop and test a series of hypotheses regarding interorganizational knowledge-sharing with different actors in networks. Findings, based on responses from 182 firms, reveal that a firm's degree of knowledge-sharing with research institutions and customers is positively influenced by the firm's resource commitment. As expected, the firms' satisfaction is positively related to the frequency of communication. Consistent with the proposed hypotheses, knowledge tacitness diminishes the effect sharing knowledge with suppliers has on satisfaction. Contrary to expectations, tacitness positively moderates the effect sharing knowledge with customers has on satisfaction. Overall, this paper establishes the foundation for a more finegrained analysis of knowledge-sharing with customers, suppliers and research institutions in a network setting.
  • "Buyer-Supplier Relationships and Organizational Health" Members Only Content, Vol. 39, No. 2 (Spring 2003), p. 15.

    This article examines the relationship between organizational health and buyer-supplier relationships. Contemporary research has emphasized the need for organizations to move toward closer cooperation. The decision to engage in partnership arrangements is one that has major implications for buyers and suppliers. Using evidence from an exploratory case study, the challenges presented in developing a close, cooperative, and mutually beneficial trading relationship between a buyer and a supplier, where one partner, the buyer, is in a powerful position, are investigated. It is argued that powerful buyers can seriously damage organizational health. The findings provide evidence that it is essential to promote communication structures that encourage dialogue, consultation, and employee participation in decisionmaking. This is particularly important where decisionmaking could benefit from the in-depth technical knowledge of middle and junior managers and shopfloor workers.
  • "Collaboration In Customer-Supplier Relationships: Strategy, Operations and the Function of Rhetoric" Members Only Content, Vol. 33, No. 4 (Fall 1997), p. 10.

    This article describes a case study undertaken as part of a wider project concerning the emergence of collaborative customer-supplier relationships in the United Kingdom, and looks at the Rover Group automobile manufacturer and component supplier TRW. It illustrates how effective integration at the operating level does not of itself remove other areas of potential conflict, particularly in the area of costs and pricing. This may mean that the rhetoric of "partnerships" may require some degree of decoding. However, the case also illustrates that such issues can be overcome with appropriate managerial attention.
  • "Collaborative Value Analysis: Experiences from the Automotive Industry" Members Only Content, Vol. 36, No. 4 (Fall 2000), p. 27.

    As the nature of competition shifts to a supply chain focus, effectively leveraging suppliers’ technical expertise is becoming essential to market success in many industries. Some organizations are using a time-proven technique, value analysis (VA), to leverage their suppliers’ technical expertise. This study reports the benefits and challenges of supplier involvement in VA based on the experiences of four first-tier automotive suppliers. When suppliers are involved in VA, many ideas can be developed and trust can increase, both of which strengthen buyer-supplier partnerships. Unfortunately, reluctance to share cost data, lack of engineering resources, and failure to obtain customer approval are barriers to VA implementation. Several practices can be used to overcome these barriers.
  • Communicate with Your Vendors, Vol. 22, No. 4 (Winter 1986), p. 16.

    This article is not available online.
  • Delineating the "Ease of Doing Business" Construct within the Supplier-Customer Interface, Vol. 43, No. 2 (Spring 2007), p. 29.

    The current research provides insight into the "ease of doing business" construct. Factor analysis of survey responses of supply managers in the electronics industry was used to test the proposed "ease of doing business" construct, which includes the three dimensions — information and material services, financial contract services and personal relations services. Results support a link between a customer's assessment of a supplier's "ease of doing business" and the amount of business conducted with that supplier. The attributes supported by this research provide the means for managers to improve and grow business with customers.
  • Determinants of Source Loyalty in Buyer-Seller Relationships, Vol. 26, No. 4 (Fall 1990), p. 21.

    This article is not available online.
  • Differences between Minority and Non-Minority Suppliers, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Spring 1980), p. 2.

    This article is not available online.
  • E-Reverse Auctions Revisited: An Analysis of Context, Buyer–Supplier Relations and Information Behavior, Vol. 43, No. 4 (Fall 2007), p. 43.

    This study investigates context, information behavior and buyer–supplier relationships in e-reverse auctions (e-RAs). Following a grounded theory approach, a comprehensive online questionnaire was developed and sent to both users and nonusers of e-RAs. Usable responses were received from 89 buyers and 54 suppliers that were analyzed taking into account both the size and consistency of effects obtained from the Mann–Whitney U-test and Kendall’s tau (t) statistic. The results not only show that e-RAs have fewer negative effects on buyer–supplier relationships than currently assumed but also that the management of e-RAs (particularly a high valuation of types and sources of information combined with a high quality of information exchange and communication) has a positive impact on the buyer–supplier relationship.
  • "Examining Supplier Improvement Efforts from Both Sides" Members Only Content, Vol. 35, No. 3 (Summer 1999), p. 40.

    Perceptual data from the population of buyers and suppliers to a major electronics firm were collected to test the extent of judgmental convergence between matched pairs of buyers and suppliers with respect to the suppliers' quality management practices and the buyers' supplier development activities. The customer firm (and its supply base) was chosen due to its national leadership in quality improvement achievements and forward thinking in supply management. It was believed that this electronic systems manufacturer would be most likely to have reached a common understanding with its suppliers regarding continuous improvement needs. Results indicate that buyers and suppliers are largely in agreement regarding the extent of the suppliers' total quality management (TQM) implementation. Little agreement was noted regarding the buyers' execution of supplier development activities. Recommendations to supply managers regarding enhanced communication with their suppliers and recognition of their suppliers' role in quality improvement are offered.
  • "Exploring the Effect of Supplier Management on Performance in the Korean Automotive Supply Chain" Members Only Content, Vol. 38, No. 2 (Spring 2002), p. 46.

    This article explores the relationship between supply management practices and performance from a supply chain perspective. A conceptual model of supplier management practices and performance was developed and tested using covariance structural modeling. Survey data were gathered from first-tier suppliers in the Korean automotive industry. The results showed that in a supply chain, the supplier management practices adopted by first-tier suppliers affected second-tier suppliers' performance. Second-tier suppliers' performance consequently influenced both first-tier suppliers' quality and delivery performance. These findings suggest that best practices in supplier management should be transferred upstream in the supply chain to improve overall performance of the entire supply chain.
  • "Factors Affecting the Level of Trust and Commitment in Supply Chain Relationships" Members Only Content, Vol. 40, No. 2 (Spring 2004), p. 4.

    Trust is a critical factor fostering commitment among supply chain partners. The presence of trust improves measurably the chance of successful supply chain performance. A lack of trust among supply chain partners often results in inefficient and ineffective performance as the transaction costs (verification, inspections and certifications of their trading partners) mount. Although the literature often mentions a relationship between trust and commitment, there is a lack of empirical testing of such relationship in the supply context. This study attempts to fill the gap between the theoretical argument and empirical testing. Results using a comprehensive survey of supply chain practitioners indicate that a firm's trust in its supply chain partner is highly associated with both sides' specific asset investments (positively) and behavioral uncertainty (negatively). It is also found that information sharing reduces the level of behavioral uncertainty, which, in turn, improves the level of trust. A partner's reputation in the market has a strong positive impact on the trust-building process, whereas a partner's perceived conflict creates a strong negative impact on trust. Finally, the level of commitment is strongly related to the level of trust. Policy implications are discussed.
  • Identifying Interfirm Total Cost Advantages for Supply Chain Competitiveness, Vol. 27, No. 4 (Fall 1991), p. 10.

    This article is not available online.
  • Improving Reverse Supply Chain Operational Performance: A Transshipment Application Study for Not-for-Profit Organizations, Vol. 42, No. 1 (Winter 2006), p. 38.

    This paper describes an approach for improving the operational performance in the reverse supply chain in a not-for-profit environment. The authors present a model based on risk pooling through preventive lateral transshipment as a method for improving the responsiveness of not-for-profit core business practice of redistributing donated products in order to increase revenues. The model considers a three-echelon structure consisting of three collection centers, one sorting and disposition center, and three retail stocking locations. The ensuing simulation indicates a favorable response of the model. Results indicated that while the daily average inventories slightly increased, the frequency of lost sales significantly decreased, thus offering the potential increased revenues.
  • "Intensity and Managerial Scope of Supplier Integration" Members Only Content, Vol. 39, No. 4 (Fall 2003), p. 4.

    Traditionally, research into antecedents, characteristics, and outcomes of supplier integration has mainly focused on integrating suppliers into new product development. What is urgently needed is a more comprehensive analysis of supplier integration activities. This research, which is based on responses from 173 industrial firms as well as supplementary interviews with purchasing executives, develops the notion of a phase-differentiated approach toward supplier integration. It further provides insights into supplier integration in the development phase and supplier integration in the industrialization phase with respect to, for example, the degree of integration, the distinct managerial approaches, and the benefits sought by the buyer and the supplier. Additionally, results of an industry-level analysis examine how various industries approach supplier integration.
  • IT Alignment in Supply Chain Relationships: A Study of Supplier Benefits, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Spring 2005), p. 4.

    Deployment of interorganizational information technology (IT) throughout supply chain networks has usually been championed by supply chain network leaders - large firms that typically dominate a supply chain network. In order to participate in a particular network, supplier firms must acquire the requisite IT enabling them to be technologically aligned with the network leader. This is an important decision for supplier firms that are typically smaller in size and must allocate larger portions of their budgets to acquire the necessary IT. This study evaluates the benefits gained by suppliers when investing in interorganizational IT that is aligned with their primary buyer or network leader. The findings show that IT alignment between supplier and buyer has a direct positive impact on both strategic and operational performance measures of the supplier. In addition, IT alignment impacts these performance measures indirectly as it encourages integration between firms.
  • Justice to Those With Whom He Deals, Vol. 3, No. 4 (Fall 1967), p. 47.

    This article is not available online.
  • "Locked-In to Supplier Dominance: On the Dangers of Asset Specificity for the Outsourcing Decision" Members Only Content, Vol. 37, No. 2 (Spring 2001), p. 22.

    The focus of this article is less on how buyer power resources can be augmented and more on how the balance of power in an exchange relationship can shift over time to favor the supplier. In particular, the article investigates the importance of asset specificity for buyer-supplier exchange relationships in outsourcing decisions. Particular emphasis is placed on the need for buyers to understand pre- and post-contractual risks.
  • "Maintaining Buyer-Supplier Partnerships" Members Only Content, Vol. 31, No. 3 (Summer 1995), p. 2.

    Partnerships between industrial buyers and industrial sellers are becoming more common in the United States. However, evidence suggests that many of these relationships do not reach their full potential because of actions taken or not taken by the partners. While some partnerships are doomed to failure from the beginning, many fail because the partners do not have a process established to maintain the relationship.
  • Managing Conflict of Interest Issues in Purchasing, Vol. 42, No. 3 (Summer 2006).

    One of the most important elements of ethical purchasing behavior is conflict of interest. In response to the heightened regulatory environment, many organizations have initiated reviews of their conflict of interest policies and ethical codes of behavior in supply management. The goal of the current exploratory study is to determine the most common approaches used to promote compliance with ethical codes of conduct (specifically conflict of interest policies) in supply management. Questionnaires were administered to eight "typical" Fortune 500 companies. Current conflicts of interest policies were identified, in addition to spotlighting common approaches to enforcing ethical behavior, including multiple communication and reporting channels, formal procedures, effective sanctions against violators and regular training of employees in ethical policies. Survey results were used to generate a scoring system that compares the overall level of ethics management maturity based on profiles of the companies studied in the research.
  • "Managing Supplier Involvement in Process Improvement in Manufacturing" Members Only Content, Vol. 37, No. 3 (Summer 2001), p. 48.

    This research examines strategies for maximizing supplier contributions to process development/improvement in manufacturing organizations. One hundred and sixty-nine senior purchasing managers who are employed by manufacturing firms responded to a mail questionnaire regarding purchasing and supplier involvement in process development/improvement. "Process" was defined as "any production/operations process that used materials and supplies, capital equipment, labor, and information to convert inputs into products/services." One hundred and thirty-five respondents indicated that suppliers are involved in process development/improvement in their organizations. Stepwise multiple regression was used to identify variables that affect supplier effectiveness when they are involved. The results indicate that supplier contributions to process development/improvement are facilitated when the firm processes are a source of competitive advantage, there is comprehensive involvement by purchasing, and decisions regarding supplier involvement are not overly structured. Implications of this research for supply chain practitioners, teachers, and researchers are discussed.
  • Managing Supply Risk with Early Supplier Involvement: A Case Study and Research Propositions, Vol. 41, No. 4 (Fall 2005), p. 44.

    While there have been numerous reports of benefits associated with adoption of early supplier involvement (ESI) in product design, particularly in reducing the duration of the design process and improving design outcomes, this study extends a recent stream of research indicating that ESI may be a useful tool for managing supply risk. Utilizing a case-study approach, the current research explores the extent to which ESI reduces the likelihood of supply disruptions and other negative supply events for an aerospace supplier. Although initial adoption of ESI was intended to reduce supply costs, results indicated that ESI serves to reduce perceptions of supply risk at this firm. Factors associated with risk reductions are discussed in the context of agency theoretic variables, and a series of research propositions are presented to build theory in supply risk management.
  • "Managing with Power: Strategies for Improving Value Appropriation from Supply Relationships" Members Only Content, Vol. 37, No. 2 (Spring 2001), p. 42.

    In this final article, the issue that most concerns buyers — how to achieve a better deal — is discussed. This necessarily implies finding ways to transform the current power relationship between buyers and suppliers such that buyers can achieve more effective leverage of value. The focus here is on how buyers are best able to maximize their ability to appropriate value rather than on how suppliers can achieve this. This does not mean that buyers must always seek to take advantage of suppliers. On the contrary, there will always be circumstances when the best deal a buyer can achieve will involve working closely with a supplier and sharing the benefits of such collaboration.
  • "MRO Partnerships: A Case Study" Members Only Content, Vol. 33, No. 3 (Summer 1997), p. 18.

    Despite the increased attention procurement managers are giving MRO purchasing, success in managing MRO items has been limited. Increased awareness of MRO purchasing can be traced, in part, to the increased use of blanket contracts and procurement cards. However, blanket contracts and procurement cards address only one cost area of MRO purchasing, ordering, and processing costs. While firms save money through increased processing and ordering efficiencies, larger product application cost-saving opportunities in MRO purchasing lie in improving stocking, receiving, distribution, and searching activities.
  • "Outsourcing and Inter/Intra Supply Chain Dynamics: Strategic Management Issues" Members Only Content, Vol. 40, No. 4 (Fall 2004), p. 56.

    This article analyzes the outsourcing of information technology services, using an action inquiry methodology. Research spanned the disengagement and beginning of IT service functions transferred from work groups in the parent company to outsource teams. Results identified the importance of addressing strategic issues and inter/intra relationships between parent company team members and their outsource-counterparts. Conclusions indicate that behavioral issues such as psychological contracts within inter/intra work groups, power and trust are highly significant managerial issues in the success or failure of an outsourcing strategy.
  • "Proactive Supply Management: The Management of Risk" Members Only Content, Vol. 34, No. 1 (Winter 1998), p. 38.

    Proactive supply management is a frequently used phrase, yet no agreement exists about its precise meaning. This article argues that proactive purchasing management is risk management, a perspective that evolved from case studies of the purchasing function. To better understand risk management from the perspective of purchasing management, it is analyzed within the context of transaction cost theory and the resource dependency model. Evidence is provided from the case studies that risk management is an appropriate framework for understanding proactive purchasing management. Examples of risk management through proactive purchasing activities are presented.
  • "Process Oriented Supplier Development: Building the Capability for Change" Members Only Content, Vol. 33, No. 3 (Summer 1997), p. 24.

    Many companies have achieved impressive improvements in quality, delivery, and costs using results-oriented supplier development. With this approach, a team led by purchasing professionals makes technical changes such as simplifying work flows, standardizing work processes, and reducing set-up times in a supplier's operations. However, after such supplier development efforts, suppliers often return to "business as usual," failing to make further improvements on their own. This article first describes the benefits and shortcomings of results-oriented supplier development. Next, building upon successful cases of supplier development and research in change management, this article describes process-oriented supplier development practices which are more effective in building a supplier's capability for improvement. Finally, this article discusses the commitment of resources necessary for this approach to supplier development.
  • "Purchasing and Supplier Involvement in Process Improvement: A Source of Competitive Advantage" Members Only Content, Vol. 35, No. 4 (Fall 1999), p. 42.

    While purchasing and supplier involvement in new product development has been studied, little research has been conducted into purchasing and supplier involvement in production process development/improvement. Two hundred seventy-one senior managers responded to a mail questionnaire regarding purchasing and supplier involvement in process development/improvement in manufacturing, service, not-for-profit, and government organizations. Factor scores of the research variables were analyzed using t-tests to assess the affects of process as a source of competitive advantage, purchasing involvement, and supplier involvement on process development/improvement practice and strategy. Contingency table analysis with the chi-square statistic was used to assess the affects of industry category. It was found that processes contribute to competitive advantage, purchasing plays a major role in process development/improvement, and that purchasing and supplier involvement contributes to process development/improvement in all industry categories. These contributions are greatest in manufacturing. The implications of this research to purchasing professionals, researchers, and academicians are discussed.
  • "Purchasing and Supplier Involvement: Issues and Insights Regarding New Product Success" Members Only Content, Vol. 35, No. 3 (Summer 1999), p. 4.

    This research examines the effects of purchasing and supplier involvement on new product success. Two hundred fifty-two senior purchasing managers completed a mail questionnaire that addressed a wide range of issues regarding the effects of purchasing and supplier involvement, the management of supplier involvement, the organization's strategic orientation, and the organization's competitive environment on new product success. The results indicate that the organization's strategic orientation and competitive environment, purchasing involvement, and supplier involvement affect new product success. The appropriate level, timing, and frequency of supplier involvement was found to vary with the situation. The results also provide insight into the role of purchasing in new product development and the effective management of supplier involvement in new product development.
  • Purchasing Department Inputs to Stimulate Black Capitalism, Vol. 6, No. 2 (Spring 1970), p. 42.

    This article is not available online.
  • "Purchasing from Minority Business Enterprises: Key Success Factors" Members Only Content, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Winter 1999), p. 28.

    There is a growing realization among purchasing managers that sourcing from minority business enterprises (MBEs) results in more than just window dressing for public relations. MBE suppliers bring value and innovation to the supplier base. Furthermore, sourcing from MBE suppliers can help strengthen the economic outlook of the overall minority community. The authors used a combination of case studies and a mail survey to identify the key factors that can result in successful MBE purchasing programs.
  • Purchasing's Role in a Concurrent Engineering Environment, Vol. 28, No. 1 (Winter 1992), p. 21.

    This article is not available online.
  • Purchasing: A Competitive Weapon, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Fall 1988), p. 2.

    This article is not available online.
  • "Quality Function Deployment: The Role of Suppliers" Members Only Content, Vol. 30, No. 4 (Fall 1994), p. 28.

    Suppliers have a new and important role to play through quality function deployment (QFD), an increasingly used method of product development. QFD is based on teamwork and customer involvement from the conception stage of new product development through final delivery. The approach integrates marketing, design, engineering development, manufacturing, production, and purchasing efforts in a manner that helps manufacturers meet the new and pressing demands of the 1990s. These demands include developing and introducing successful new products in less time, at lower cost, and at higher quality than the competition.
  • Single Sourcing: Short-Term Savings Versus Long-Term Problems, Vol. 25, No. 2 (Summer 1989), p. 20.

    This article is not available online.
  • Strategic Buyer-Supplier Relationships, Information Technology and External Logistics Integration, Vol. 43, No. 2 (Spring 2007), p. 2.

    The advent of vertical disintegration coupled with the globalization of markets has brought about increased attention to how firms coordinate flow of materials and information across their supply chain partners. The current research explores the impact of strategic buyer-supplier relationships and information technology on a firm's external logistics integration and agility performance using data collected from over 200 firms. The proposed structural equation model reveals that strategic buyer-supplier relationships and information technology engender external logistics integration, which in turn, affects agility performance of firms. Furthermore, information technology moderates the link between buyer-supplier relationships and logistics integration. Implications for future research and practice are also discussed.
  • "Subregimes of Power and Integrated Supply Chain Management" Members Only Content, Vol. 37, No. 2 (Spring 2001), p. 36.

    Business life is littered with examples of good intentions, broken promises, and disgruntled shareholders. Very often, the grand projects of CEOs have been based upon expert advice and opinion. Every year, a new business idea becomes "hot" and, as a result, spreads like a contagion through the boardrooms of major corporations. In its 75-year anniversary issue, Harvard Business Review charted the history of such business fads. While the survey showed that some of the ideas had clearly become established (indicating their commercial utility), most had not, and even those that had survived had frequently done so in somewhat modified form (HBR 1997).
  • "Supplier Assistance Within Supplier Development Initiatives" Members Only Content, Vol. 40, No. 3 (Summer 2004), p. 19.

    Supplier development involves taking those initiatives necessary to change the performance of supplier firms. This paper develops a conceptual model that captures the salient issues from an internal or purchaser's standpoint, as well as from an external or seller's standpoint. The model assists purchasers in pinpointing improvement initiatives that provide the best returns. Moreover, it illustrates that different purchasing firms perceive supplier value differently because of the relative amount of competition in a respective supply market and because of the value offered by various products within the purchasing firm's business. Case studies were conducted to highlight methods of strategically enhancing the supplier/ customer relationship to develop exemplary supply chains. Results indicated ineffective measurement criteria as a key impediment to supplier development. Additionally, results indicated that many purchasers are in transition regarding embracing bold and substantive supplier development initiatives.
  • Supplier Development, Vol. 25, No. 1 (Spring 1989), p. 47.

    This article is not available online.
  • Supplier Development, Vol. 2, No. 4 (Fall 1966), p. 47.

    This article is not available online.
  • "Supplier Development from the Minority Supplier's Perspective" Members Only Content, Vol. 35, No. 4 (Fall 1999), p. 33.

    This article examines the perspectives of minority-owned suppliers regarding their relationship with a large industrial manufacturing firm in the midwest region of the united states. The firm has a well-established minority-owned supplier development program. This study focused on assessing the effectiveness of the company's minority supplier development program, in terms of the outcomes of the program for minority suppliers, and examining potential barriers to success. Data were collected using a survey questionnaire mailed to minority-owned suppliers. The suppliers' responses were grouped on the basis of three variables: (1) sales volume, (2) percentage of the supplier's sales to the firm, and (3) length of the supplier's business relationship with the firm. Responses were analyzed to determine whether supplier size, sales percentage, or relationship length were significantly related to the perceived quality of the relationship.
  • "Supplier Development Practices: Product- and Service-Based Industry Comparisons" Members Only Content, Vol. 38, No. 2 (Spring 2002), p. 13.

    Supplier development has become a viable supply chain management practice across industries as firms continue to focus on their core competencies and outsource a significant percentage of the costs of goods sold. Supplier development practices used by buying firms include formal supplier assessment and feedback, supplier incentives, competitive pressure, and direct involvement in improving performance through activities such as training and investment. Although it is apparent that such strategies and processes are used to some extent across industries, it is unclear if there are differences in supplier development approaches between product- and service-based firms. The findings indicate that service firms tend to rely on the competitive pressure of market forces to instigate supplier performance to a greater extent than product-based firms and that product-based firms tend to use assessment, incentives, and direct involvement to a greater extent than service firms.
  • "Supplier Development Programs: An Empirical Analysis" Members Only Content, Vol. 29, No. 2 (Spring 1993), p. 11.

    To compete effectively in the global marketplace, a company must have a network of competent suppliers. A supplier development program is designed to create and maintain such a network-and to improve various supplier capabilities that are necessary for the buying organization to meet its increasing competitive challenges.
  • Supplier Development: A British Case Study, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Winter 1991), p. 16.

    This article is not available online.
  • "Supplier Development: Current Practices and Outcomes" Members Only Content, Vol. 33, No. 2 (Spring 1997), p. 12.

    This article presents the results of a survey on supplier development. The research indicates that buying firms engage in a variety of supplier development activities. The outcomes and benefits from supplier development, which are determined from a range of measures, e.g., measures of incoming defects, on-time deliveries, and perceptions of the buyer-supplier relationship, are reported. Respondents were generally positive about the outcomes of their supplier development efforts, but their perceptions could have been more favorable. The research also suggests that supplier development activities vary in terms of the level of buying firm commitment to the supplier development effort.
  • "Supplier Relationships and the Trade Secrets Dilemma" Members Only Content, Vol. 32, No. 3 (Summer 1996), p. 45.

    Increasingly, purchasing managers are finding that they are gatekeepers of valuable information for which adequate security must be provided. As relationships between purchasers and suppliers become increasingly interdependent through partnering arrangements, the need to document and provide adequate security increases. The authors believe that with recent trends in supplier relations, purchasing managers must take a proactive approach to provide for the safety of their firms' proprietary information. The trade secrets problem facing managers is explored, and a suggested program for reducing the risks of information misappropriation is presented.
  • Supply Base Reduction: An Empirical Study of Critical Success Factors, Vol. 42, No. 4 (Fall 2006), p. 29.

    One important factor in the design of an organization's supply chain is the number of suppliers used for a given product or service. Supply base reduction is one option useful in managing the supply base. The current paper reports the results of case studies in 10 organizations that recently implemented supply base reduction activities. Specifically, the paper identifies the key success factors in supply base reduction efforts and prescribes processes to capture the benefits of supply base reduction.
  • Supply Chain Coordination and Cooperation Mechanisms: An Attribute-Based Approach, Vol. 42, No. 1 (Winter 2006), p. 4.

    Coordination within a supply chain is a strategic response to the problems that arise from interorganizational dependencies within the chain. A coordination mechanism is a set of methods used to manage interdependence between organizations. Given the increasing importance of high-performance supply, and the advantages to be gained through supply chain coordination, the challenge to an organization is how to select the appropriate coordination mechanism to manage organizational interdependencies. This paper develops and illustrates an attribute-based, systematic process for selecting coordination mechanisms in a supply chain.
  • "Supply Chains and Power Regimes: Toward an Analytic Framework for Managing Extended Networks of Buyer and Supplier Relationships" Members Only Content, Vol. 37, No. 2 (Spring 2001), p. 28.

    In the previous articles, the basic structure of the power perspective was outlined and two examples were provided of how buyer and supplier power can be augmented or challenged in simple dyadic exchange relationships. In this article, the discussion is broadened beyond the immediate buyer relationship with first-tier suppliers to take in the issue of how supply chains can, and should, be understood. The article is in three parts. The first section explains why current thinking about supply chains is primarily located within a descriptive paradigm. The second section explains how a more analytic approach to supply chain thinking can be developed. The final section explains the analytic concept of power regimes and discusses its practical utility.
  • Supply Management Strategies for the Future: A Delphi Study, Vol. 41, No. 3 (Summer 2005), p. 29.

    As supply management becomes more involved in strategic decisions, an understanding of the various strategies that it can employ is crucial. This research uses a multiround Delphi study of key procurement and supply management executives to better understand which procurement and supply management strategies may lead to significant improvements over the next 5-10 years. The results indicate that strategies such as increased integration, information sharing and collaboration among supply chain members are most likely to be implemented and will have the largest impact on organizations. However, this integration will not include joint investment or asset sharing, will be limited to one tier in the supply chain, and will not heavily involve e-markets and electronic auctions.
  • "The Impact of Interpersonal Satisfaction on Repurchase Decisions" Members Only Content, Vol. 39, No. 3 (Summer 2003), p. 30.

    Having once made a purchase from a supplier, customer satisfaction has been found to drive buyers' decisions about the firms from which they will repurchase goods or services. Interpersonal satisfaction, the gratification that buyers receive from relationships with salespeople, is an important component of overall customer satisfaction. Even with the growing role of technology in procurement and supply chain management, interpersonal relationships between individual buyers and sellers are an important factor in supplier selection. Other components of overall satisfaction are satisfaction with the product or service and satisfaction with the performance of the supplier. In order to measure the role of these several aspects of overall satisfaction, a survey of Institute for Supply Management™ (ISM) members responsible for making repurchase decisions was conducted. The results demonstrate that satisfaction with the product, satisfaction with the supplier's performance, and satisfaction with the salesperson are correlated with intention to repurchase. Managerial implications of the results are discussed.
  • "The Impact of Regulation on Buyer and Supplier Power" Members Only Content, Vol. 37, No. 2 (Spring 2001), p. 16.

    This article discusses the impact of government regulation on the power advantages enjoyed by buyers and suppliers in dyadic exchange interactions. From a supply chain management perspective, it is vital to understand such advantages and the impact of government regulation upon them, because the gains from trade in buyer-supplier interactions can often be explained by a focus on the power context in which a transaction takes place.
  • "The Impact of Supplier Visions on Product Development" Members Only Content, Vol. 37, No. 1 (Winter 2001), p. 27.

    This article explores the impact of visions for sup-pliers in outsourced product development, the creation of visions for suppliers, and finally, the interplay between visions for suppliers and core capabilities of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). Developing visions for suppliers can help OEMs to create clear expectations and thus better utilize the core capabilities of the buyer and sup-plier firms. Data for this research were collected in one automotive OEM and two of its first-tier sup-pliers, all based in Europe. The results of the study suggest that the creation of visions for suppliers impacts the development process positively. Further, the presence of visions for suppliers affects the core capabilities of the OEMs.
  • "The Meaning and Origin of Trust in Buyer-Supplier Relationships" Members Only Content, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Winter 1997), p. 40.

    Little attention has been given to the specific nature and origin of trust in buyer-supplier relationships. As a result, this article presents both a literature-based definition of trust and a definition according to purchasing managers. The conclusion is that a trustworthy buyer or supplier is one who: does not act in a purely self-serving manner, accurately discloses relevant information when requested, does not change supply specifications, and generally acts in an ethical manner. However, knowing a definition of trust without understanding the origins of trust is of limited value. Therefore, identity, image, and reputation as the origins of trust are discussed. Next, six managerial and research issues or questions are presented:
  • The Myth of the Cooperative Single Source, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Winter 1990), p. 2.

    This article is not available online.
  • "The Power Perspective in Procurement and Supply Management" Members Only Content, Vol. 37, No. 2 (Spring 2001), p. 4.

    The six articles presented in this special edition of The Journal of Supply Chain Management are the fruits of a number of years of dedicated consulting work and academic research into effective procurement and supply management. The articles are not the culmination of this effort, rather they are a work in progress. This is because there are as many remaining questions and problems to resolve as there are answers currently at hand. Only when all of these questions and problems have been resolved will a proper understanding of competence in procurement and supply management be achieved.
  • "The Purchase of Information Technology Products by Dutch SMEs: Problem Resolution" Members Only Content, Vol. 37, No. 4 (Fall 2001), p. 34.

    This research focuses on the purchase of information technology (IT) products by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Netherlands. Based on nationwide representative survey data (a total of 1,252 IT transactions), the research considers the problems that Dutch SMEs are faced with and the way in which these problems are dealt with. On average, 28 percent of transactions are completed without problems. If problems are encountered, they mostly involve inadequate documentation (45 percent of all transactions). Frequently mentioned problems, such as incompatibility with other IT products and being over budget, occur much less frequently (about 25 percent of all transactions). Moreover, strong support was found for the existence of a specific sequence in dealing with ex-post problems. Nearly all SMEs at least communicate the problem to the supplier; if that does not solve the issue, it is almost always followed by active deliberation with the supplier about a solution. If that does not help, about half of the SMEs impose some kind of sanction (most of the time delaying the payment). If that still does not settle the issue, virtually all SMEs give up on it. Third parties, such as arbitration committees or the courts, are rarely invoked.
  • "The Purchasing and Control of Supplementary Third-Party Logistics Services" Members Only Content, Vol. 36, No. 4 (Fall 2000), p. 14.

    Mass customization poses a challenge to the development of competitive supply chains. Third-party logistics service providers are targeting customizing operations to supplement their transport and warehousing services. Their expansion is driven by strategies for adding value and upgrading customer relations. This article assesses the development of these relations by presenting the results of a survey conducted among service providers. The assessment covers the nature of the purchasing policy and governance structure applied in this particular type of interfirm relations, including the type of services, contracts, frequency, level, and content of coordination and communication among parties in the chain. It was found that the new transactional context does not represent a market environment in which third parties can escape traditional arm’s-length fixed contracts. It was also found that supplementary customizing services are not often applied. Recommendations are made about purchasing these services and about initiatives for third parties to start expanding their competence within the governance structure.
  • "The Role of Purchasing in the Agile Enterprise" Members Only Content, Vol. 34, No. 4 (Fall 1998), p. 39.

    The article examines purchasing's role in achieving agility and competitive advantage. Using a Delphi study, this research investigated and identified buying behaviors that optimize a firm's relationship with key suppliers (Supplier-Oriented Purchasing Behaviors). Implications for managing agile purchasing strategies are discussed.
  • "The Strategic Value of Buyer-Supplier Relationships" Members Only Content, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Summer 1998), p. 20.

    This research investigates the determinants and outcomes of trust in buyer-supplier relationships. Trust in a partner organization and in the individual counterpart are examined from both the buyers' and suppliers' perspectives. The method in which organizational and interorganizational management practices influence trust in buyer-supplier relations and how trust at two levels relates to supplier performance are discussed. Data for the statistical analysis was gathered from a survey of 99 purchasing managers and their lead suppliers.
  • "The Supply Chain: The Weak Link for Some Preferred Suppliers?" Members Only Content, Vol. 38, No. 3 (Summer 2002), p. 39.

    More than ever before, the supply chain presents a significant challenge to firms that must develop a logistics system to help enhance product flow throughout their distribution channels. Of the various types of suppliers, those described as preferred should normally be in the best position to respond to the strategic aspirations of large order-givers. Given the growing importance ascribed to supply chain management and supplier characterization in the literature, this article proposes to examine the actual contribution of various types of suppliers to supply chain integration. Following an empirical study focusing on a large multinational firm and its regular first-tier suppliers, a detailed statistical analysis was conducted. Cluster analysis revealed the extent of a suppliers' logistics contributions. Overall, the findings suggest three types of contributions, and show that the intensity of a supplier's contribution has little to do with its status as a preferred supplier, depending instead on the sophistication of a supplier's logistics system. The system is characterized by a significant increase in the role of logistics in a firm's structures, through formalization of an organization, reinforcement of communication and information quality and the use of leading-edge technology. The authors conclude that it may be tempting for a large order-giver simply to expect supply chain performance from its preferred suppliers, rather than adding this characteristic to the others used as a basis for granting preferred status to some of its suppliers.
  • The Use of Exclusive Dealing in Purchasing, Vol. 3, No. 4 (Fall 1967), p. 39.

    This article is not available online.
  • "Transparency in Supply Relationships: Concept and Practice" Members Only Content, Vol. 37, No. 4 (Fall 2001), p. 4.

    The problems associated with transparency in supply relationships — the two-way exchange of information and knowledge between customer and supplier — represent chronic difficulty for managers. The sensitivity of such exchanges appears to interfere with — even to negate — their effectiveness and value. This may be because of insufficient consideration of types of transparency and a propensity for customer domination in the relationship. This research is aimed at exploring these difficulties in order to understand the dynamics and varying nature of transparency in this context (including a proposed state of value transparency) and to suggest ways in which it might be approached in practice. In addition to the social and technology-led drivers identified for transparency, the research approach to the concept in supply has been driven by the observation that many of the traditional routines and activities occurring between industrial or commercial purchasers and their suppliers can be unnecessary and wasteful. This article presents the background to this hypothesis and records the development of a framework for discussion of the concept.
  • "Trust and Relationship Commitment in Logistics Alliances: A Buyer Perspective" Members Only Content, Vol. 34, No. 1 (Winter 1998), p. 24.

    This research provides new insights into logistics alliances by examining the roles of trust and commitment in such relationships. A model of logistics alliances from a buying firm's perspective is proposed and empirically tested using a sample of 339 firms with various types of logistics alliances. The results indicate that both trust and relationship commitment are important elements in logistics alliances. A third party's equity behavior appears to be an important factor affecting the development of trust in a relationship while conflict significantly hinders the development of relationship commitment. The results also indicate that relationship commitment and effectiveness are influenced more by negative outcomes associated with conflict than by positive outcomes associated with trust.
  • "Understanding Buyer and Supplier Power: A Framework for Procurement and Supply Competence" Members Only Content, Vol. 37, No. 2 (Spring 2001), p. 8.

    This article outlines how the power perspective can enhance effective procurement and supply management. The first section outlines the current dominant view of competence in procurement and supply management and explains why it is incomplete. The second section explains why competence in procurement and supply management must start from an understanding of the bases of supplier power and business strategy. This section also explains the critical role of buying as one of the two main competencies that all organizations require if they seek business success. The final section outlines the basic power matrix that is essential in understanding the exchange relationship between buyers and suppliers, so that buyers can understand the circumstance they are in and what scope exists for them to augment their power relative to suppliers.
  • "Values Driving Decisions In Questionable Purchasing Situations" Members Only Content, Vol. 30, No. 4 (Fall 1994), p. 45.

    This article assesses the values that drive some of the ethical considerations of supplier management decisions. Seven values were included in five scenarios in which research participants made a decision and described why it was made. The research found that the participants, purchasing professionals employed primarily by manufacturing firms in midwestern states, make decisions predominately using the values of professional responsibility, beneficence, justice, and truth—and less frequently the values of autonomy, confidentiality, and harm avoidance. The research also indicated different patterns of value application, depending on the questionable purchasing situation confronting a purchaser. In addition, the data suggest that the respondents reacted more ethically to questionable situations than has been reported in previous studies. Finally, the values chosen by the sample suggest that purchasers function well in collaborative buyer-seller relationships, use a total cost concept when necessary, and understand the effect of their actions on the competitive posture of their companies.
  • "What Determines Buyer-Seller Relationship Quality? An Investigation from the Buyer's Perspective" Members Only Content, Vol. 38, No. 2 (Spring 2002), p. 4.

    In today's environment, businesses are increasingly dependent on the relationships they have with their suppliers and are demanding that they adhere to high standards. It is increasingly important that buyers have strong relationships with their suppliers to stay ahead of competition. The establishment, development, and maintenance of relationships between exchange partners is crucial to achieving success (Morgan and Hunt 1994). The goal of this research is to further investigate the nature of buyer-seller relationships from the buyer's perspective and to address the question - what determines the quality of buyer-seller relationships? Many factors may contribute to the quality of a buyer-seller relationship. Quality may depend on the nature of the organizations involved, the individuals in the organizations, and the nature of the situation. This study considers two main sets of variables, interpersonal and aspects of the relationship. Interpersonal variables describe the characteristics of individual company representatives, while aspects of the relationship variables describe the situations buyers and sellers face. A unique aspect of this study is that it considers the role both of individuals and of the organizations they represent.