Journal of Supply Chain Management

Article Index - Results

A valuable reference tool, the Article Index is a comprehensive list of articles that have appeared in the Journal of Supply Chain Management (formerly International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, Journal of Purchasing & Materials Management and Journal of Purchasing). Articles are organized by subject for easy locating and study.

Journal Article Index
Term selected: Sourcing Issues

  • "A Model for Strategic Supplier Selection" Members Only Content, Vol. 38, No. 1 (Winter 2002), p. 18.

    The purchasing function for some time now has been receiving increasing importance as a critical supply chain management component. This is mainly due to the significant impact of material costs on profits, increased investments in advanced manufacturing and information technologies, and a growing emphasis on Just-In-Time (JIT) production. The critical objectives of purchasing departments include obtaining the product at the right cost in the right quantity with the right quality at the right time from the right source. This requires executing effective decisions concerning supplier selection and evaluation. This article addresses the supplier selection process. This model for evaluation and selection of suppliers considers multiple factors that include strategic, operational, tangible, and intangible measures. The model also allows for input from a variety of managerial decisionmaking levels and considers the dynamic aspects of the competitive environment in evaluating suppliers. An empirical case illustration demonstrates the efficacy of the model. The results provide interesting managerial implications.
  • A Multidimensional Framework for Understanding Outsourcing Arrangements, Vol. 43, No. 4 (Fall 2007), p. 2.

    The growth of outsourcing has resulted in numerous different outsourcing arrangements, ranging from out-tasking and managed services to business process outsourcing and transformational outsourcing. The growing lexicon of outsourcing terminology has caused confusion for many managers and academicians alike, who tend to view outsourcing as a fixed, discrete event or a simple make-or-buy decision. In reality, outsourcing is an umbrella term that includes a range of sourcing options that are external to the firm. Understanding these options, their characteristic differences, and how they serve to meet differing business objectives is the focus of the current research. Based on in-depth interviews with 19 senior executives experienced in outsourcing, as well as a thorough synthesis of available research, this article provides a framework clarifying the broad spectrum of outsourcing arrangements, and their inherent risks and advantages. Managerial guidance related to outsourcing is also provided.
  • An Analytical Approach to Supplier Selection, Vol. 19, No. 4 (Winter 1983), p. 27.

    This article is not available online.
  • "An Assessment of the Role of Technical and Risk Evaluation Factors in Defense Source Selection Decisions" Members Only Content, Vol. 30, No. 4 (Fall 1994), p. 37.

    This article explores the use of technical and risk evaluation factors in formal source selections for complex military supplies and services. It describes the process used to develop evaluation criteria for source selections when expertise and technical approach are dominant concerns in the acquisition. Data were collected from 32 Air Force source selections. Chi-square tests and correlation values were used to assess the relationship between the application of the evaluation criteria and the source selection authority's decision. The research found that proposal ratings based on the criteria were correlated to the source selection decision in an expected and consistent way. Technical and risk evaluation factors exhibited high correlations to the award decision, while the cost factor was among the lowest. Based on the source selections studied, it appears that cost factors, and perhaps political factors, may not play the important roles in government source selections that some have claimed. At the very least, they did not appear to skew the process so as to achieve inconsistencies between the ratings and the award decisions for the source selections examined.
  • Competition and Market Behavior: The Case of Rubber Tires, Vol. 6, No. 2 (Spring 1970), p. 60.

    This article is not available online.
  • "Influences on Industrial Buyers' Choice of Products: Effects of Product Application, Product Type, and Buying Environment" Members Only Content, Vol. 30, No. 2 (Spring 1994), p. 28.

    While there have been numerous attempts over a number of years to describe and analyze various aspects of the industrial buying process, comparatively little has been done to determine the effects of general product-related factors on the choice of products by buyers. This article examines effects on the product evaluation and choice process of several such factors. Using a group of representative products, the effects of product application, general product type, and certain aspects of the buying environment are determined and analyzed. Implications for industrial buyers and for their product preferences are discussed.
  • "Network Sourcing: A Hybrid Approach" Members Only Content, Vol. 31, No. 2 (Spring 1995), p. 18.

    This article discusses the results of research carried out in Japan in the early 1990s. This work was undertaken to understand how Japanese manufacturers gain significant competitive advantage. It was postulated that a major part of this advantage came from the role of suppliers and the relationship that final assemblers maintained with such firms. The research program was drawn up to study a group of Japanese manufacturing firms - 8 final assemblers and 36 suppliers-to understand how these firms interacted. Semi-structured interviews and questionnaire surveys were utilized to collect data.
  • Optimizing Aggregate Procurement Allocation Decisions, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Spring 1986), p. 23.

    This article is not available online.
  • Perceived Importance of Supplier Information, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Spring 1981), p. 21.

    This article is not available online.
  • Purchasing from Minority Small Businesses, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Spring 1991), p. 9.

    This article is not available online.
  • Role of the Sales Representative in Buying Strategy, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Summer 1979), p. 20.

    This article is not available online.
  • Single Source Qualification, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Summer 1988), p. 10.

    This article is not available online.
  • Single Sourcing: A Management Tool for the Quality Supplier, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Spring 1987), p. 19.

    This article is not available online.
  • Source Selection: A Matrix Approach, Vol. 22, No. 2 (Summer 1986), p. 24.

    This article is not available online.
  • "Sourcing Implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement" Members Only Content, Vol. 31, No. 2 (Spring 1995), p. 26.

    This research examines the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) from the perspective of a hypothetical firm operating in the household appliance industry. The location of the lowest cost source of components and the effects on the total systems cost to manufacture and distribute finished products are examined under different levels of economic integration. The research utilizes a network simulation to model optimum supplier sources, purchased item flows, and associated costs to meet total North American demand. The study's results, while highly dependent on the data utilized, indicate that the NAFTA could result in significant changes in supply location and total systems cost for firms with integrated North American operations.
  • Sourcing Indirect Spend: A Survey of Current Internal and External Strategies for Non-Revenue-Generating Goods and Services, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Spring 2005), p. 39.

    This article provides evidence about the current sourcing strategies for indirect spend from a survey of 124 organizations. The study found that, despite the recent prominence of reverse auctions and outsourcing options, the most frequently cited external sourcing management approach for indirect spend is long-term collaboration with preferred suppliers. There was also evidence that indirect spend suffers from a lack of internal support, maverick purchasing, and fragmentation of spend within the organization.
  • "Status and Recognition of the Purchasing Function in the Electronics Industry" Members Only Content, Vol. 32, No. 2 (Spring 1996), p. 30.

    This article examines the status and recognition of the purchasing function in the electronics industry. Issues also investigated are the perception of purchasing as a strategic or a clerical function; recognition as an equal partner on the top management team; access to information and participation in decision making; and the nature of other functions' reporting relationships to purchasing. The results confirm previous research that indicates purchasing is viewed increasingly as a strategic contributor to the firm. Further, there appears to be evidence that purchasing participates as a team member in many decision-making processes of the firm. However, the purchasing function still lacks the status and recognition that should be accorded to a critical strategic function.
  • Supplier Diversity Effectiveness: Does Organizational Culture Really Matter?, Vol. 42, No. 4 (Fall 2006), p. 16.

    This study empirically examines the influence of organizational culture on supplier diversity. It examines the relationship between buyer behavior and culture using the Organizational Culture for Diversity Inventory (OCDI). The research assesses 12 business units within a heavy equipment manufacturer and uses confirmatory factor analysis to test an explanatory model of supplier diversity effectiveness. Results indicate achievement and affiliative culture styles are important to the effectiveness of supplier diversity. Moreover, in business units characterized by defensive or passive-defensive cultures, minority sourcing was lower. Conversely, the business units with constructive cultures for diversity had higher minority sourcing.
  • "Supplier Selection and Order Quantity Allocation: A Comprehensive Model" Members Only Content, Vol. 35, No. 2 (Spring 1999), p. 50.

    In today's competitive environment, it is extremely difficult to successfully produce high quality, low cost products without considering a satisfactory set of suppliers. A useful approach to ensure the reliability of a manufacturer's supply stream is to follow a multiple sourcing policy. Mathematical programming techniques lend themselves nicely by providing optimal solutions to several instances of the problem. However, a recent review of supply selection methods (Weber et al. 1991) identified very few articles that have proposed mathematical programming techniques to analyze supplier selection decisions. Given the economic importance and inherent complexity associated with the supplier selection problem, this article proposes a mixed integer programming approach to solve the supplier selection program. The model SUPPSEL (Supplier Selection) simultaneously decides the set of suppliers and order quantity allocations among them.
  • "Supplier Selection Decisions In Systems/Software Purchases" Members Only Content, Vol. 33, No. 4 (Fall 1997), p. 41.

    Changing business conditions are likely to influence the supplier evaluation process and, thus, the relevance of selection criteria should be periodically reconsidered. In order to explore this issue, an empirical study of logistics executives' perceptions of the relative importance of specific criteria (used in the selection of systems/software vendors) was conducted. The respondents identified vendor attributes (i.e., support, reliability) and product/service attributes (i.e., flexibility, ease of use) to be of the greatest importance and economic attributes (i.e., cost) to be significantly less important when selecting a vendor for systems/software.
  • The Effect of Award Fees on Supplier Performance, Vol. 20, No. 1 (Spring 1984), p. 23.

    This article is not available online.
  • "The Impact of Cycle Time on Supplier Selection and Subsequent Performance Outcomes" Members Only Content, Vol. 39, No. 3 (Summer 2003), p. 4.

    Cycle time is among the emerging performance criteria for purchasing and supply management. However, little empirical research has been conducted for actually evaluating the impact of cycle time on strategic issues, such as long-term business relationships and supplier selection and evaluation processes. This study empirically tests the impact of cycle time on supplier selection and on the effectiveness of long-term relationships with suppliers, as reflected in the commitment and trust developed. Findings indicate that initial cycle time is not a significant predictor of trust and commitment in the context of supplier-buyer long-term relationships. However, cycle time reduction along with consistently high quality were found to be significant predictors of trust and commitment in long-term relationships.
  • "The Impact of Energy Deregulation on Sourcing Strategy" Members Only Content, Vol. 40, No. 2 (Spring 2004), p. 38.

    Supply researchers predicted in 1999 that deregulation would change the landscape for the purchasers of energy. The current research was undertaken to determine the nature and direction of the predicted changes in energy sourcing behavior. Based on detailed interviews with managers, government officials, and lobbyists, the risks and rewards associated with recent events in deregulation are examined and analyzed. Next, a detailed process for developing and implementing an energy sourcing strategy for commercial businesses that considers these risks and rewards of alternative energy sourcing channels is developed. This is followed by a process that involves aggregating data, obtaining support, defining risk tolerance, and spending parameters that involved stakeholders, evaluating proposals, executing the strategy and monitoring it over time. Finally, insights into the future trends in deregulated energy markets are described. Results suggest that a focused approach to developing detailed supply market intelligence can assist sourcing managers in preparing for the deregulated era and achieve significant cost savings in energy spending.
  • "The Impact of Supplier Selection Criteria and Supplier Involvement on Manufacturing Performance" Members Only Content, Vol. 35, No. 3 (Summer 1999), p. 33.

    This research investigates the extent to which supplier selection criteria and supplier involvement are used by manufacturers. It also provides support for the claim that firms employing these practices have enhanced supplier and manufacturing performance. Most firms regard the use of supplier selection criteria as an important part of their supplier selection process. Supplier involvement in product design activities and continuous improvement efforts is much lower than the use of supplier selection criteria. The product quality and product performance dimensions of supplier selection criteria plus all of the dimensions of supplier involvement and supplier performance are positively correlated with manufacturing performance. When the sample is divided into high and low manufacturing performers, all the elements of supplier performance and supplier involvement and all but one of the four supplier selection criteria are significantly better for the high performing group than the low performing group. These results lend support to the statement that implementing supplier selection criteria and involving suppliers has a positive impact on performance.
  • "The Relative Importance of Supplier Selection Criteria: A Review and Update" Members Only Content, Vol. 30, No. 3 (Summer 1994), p. 35.

    Purchasing professionals and researchers alike acknowledge the fact that the changing atmosphere in buyer-supplier relationships is due largely to the globalization of the marketplace. Partnering strategies, which necessitate closer ties between buyers and suppliers, are becoming increasingly common for U.S. firms. Such strategies, in turn, allow buyers and suppliers in the United States to compete more effectively with international firms abroad. How has this changing business climate affected buyers' choice decisions in supplier selection? That question is the focus of this study.
  • The Supplier Development Program: A Conceptual Model, Vol. 26, No. 2 (Spring 1990), p. 2.

    This article is not available online.
  • The Supplier Selection Decision in Strategic Partnerships, Vol. 26, No. 4 (Fall 1990), p. 8.

    This article is not available online.
  • The Use of Approved Supplier Lists, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Spring 1991), p. 37.

    This article is not available online.
  • "The Use of Intermediate Sourcing Strategies" Members Only Content, Vol. 37, No. 1 (Winter 2001), p. 18.

    Much of the existing literature discusses vertical inte-gration and competitive spot bidding as sourcing strategy choices, but often neglects intermediate sourcing strategies, such as taper integration and long-term supplier relationships. This exploratory study examines the extent to which firms use intermediate sourcing strategies, as opposed to the polar strategies, and attempts to improve our understanding of the sourcing choices available to manufacturing firms. Results from a sample of 209 plant managers indicate that firms use taper integra-tion and long-term supplier relationships more fre-quently than vertical integration and competitive spot bidding. Further, the choice of a sourcing strategy was found to be dependent on the industry.
  • U.S. Sourcing from Low-Cost Countries: A Comparative Analysis of Supplier Performance, Vol. 43, No. 4 (Fall 2007), p. 16.

    Given the increase in sourcing from low-cost countries (LCCs), it is important to assess relative supplier performance across these regions. This work investigates the comparative performance of LCC suppliers on 14 operational indicators of international sourcing and supply chain performance. Using survey methods, the study addresses these two questions: (1) How do the LCC regions of Asia, the Western Hemisphere and Europe compare in terms of the 14 operational indicators?; and (2) How do LCC nations within these three regions compare with regard to the 14 operational indicators? Perceived differences exist among the regions of Asia, the Western Hemisphere and Europe, as well as among the LCC nations of these three regions. However, no one region outperforms the others, and no one nation outperforms the others, on all 14 operational indicators investigated. Accordingly, this study also identifies the key areas of comparative advantage and disadvantage that each LCC region and each LCC nation presents in its relationship with U.S. buying firms.
  • Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Structure the Supplier Selection Procedure, Vol. 28, No. 2 (Spring 1992), p. 31.

    This article is not available online.
  • Value of Supplier Information in the Decision Process, Vol. 28, No. 2 (Spring 1992), p. 20.

    This article is not available online.
  • Vendor Profile Analysis, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Winter 1990), p. 11.

    This article is not available online.
  • "Voice of the Customer: The Impact on Customer Satisfaction" Members Only Content, Vol. 33, No. 4 (Fall 1997), p. 2.

    A recent survey of buyers in the personal products industry focused on their level of satisfaction with distribution service. Further research examined the role of voice of the customer, i.e., input provided by the buyers, in the buyer-seller relationship. It was hypothesized that listening to the voice of the customer would be related to greater customer satisfaction. Information provided by customers should offer sellers guidance for improving their overall service. Only limited support was found. However, the use of personal meetings with customers was found to impact customer satisfaction to a greater extent than the use of formal feedback mechanisms (surveys or telephone calls). Based upon this survey, it appears as though firms are not fully exploiting the potential to be gained from listening to customers.