Journal of Supply Chain Management

Article Index - Results

A valuable reference tool, the Article Index is a comprehensive list of articles that have appeared in the Journal of Supply Chain Management (formerly International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, Journal of Purchasing & Materials Management and Journal of Purchasing). Articles are organized by subject for easy locating and study.

Journal Article Index
Term selected: International/Global Purchasing

  • A Bayesian Approach to Managing Foreign Exchange in International Sourcing, Vol. 28, No. 1 (Winter 1992), p. 15.

    This article is not available online.
  • "A Comparison of North American and European Future Purchasing Trends" Members Only Content, Vol. 32, No. 2 (Spring 1996), p. 12.

    What jobs will exist in a typical firm's purchasing function in the future? The predictions include the following: The absolute number of jobs within purchasing will decrease, as will the layers of management. Purchasing organizations will adopt flatter forms, with less emphasis on hierarchy and less distinction between positions. "Functional silos" will become obsolete. The classical functions of marketing, manufacturing, engineering, purchasing, finance, and personnel will be less important in defining work. More people will take on project work focused on continuous improvement of one kind or another. Fundamental restructuring and reengineering will become a way of life at most companies. The primary focal points will be a new market-driven emphasis on creating value with customers; greatly increased flexibility; a new business-driven attack on global markets that includes a deployment of information technology; and fundamentally new jobs. Work will become integrated in its orientation, and the payoffs will increasingly be made through connections across organizational and company boundaries. New measurements that focus on strategic directions will be required. Metrics will be developed, similar to the "cost of quality" metric, which incorporate the most important dimensions of the environment. New human resource management approaches will be developed; human resource management will become less of a staff function and more closely integrated with the basic work. Teamwork will be critical to organizational success.
  • "A Four-Filter Method for Outsourcing to Low-Cost Countries", Vol. 46, No. 2 (Spring 2010), p. 64.

    Many companies face the challenge of outsourcing to low-cost countries. Still, many managers seem to be uncertain about (1) which inputs should be selected for this exercise; (2) which countries are preferred; and (3) whether to deal directly with suppliers, or through a local distributor or agent. This paper deals with these three aspects in offering a practical and tested method, derived from theory. In each of four steps, inputs are filtered out that are less suitable for sourcing from low-cost countries. Step 1 clusters all of the hundreds of inputs into 50-90 product families. A portfolio analysis of the resulting product families in Step 2 enables differentiation in the nature of goods and services acquired and their supplier relationship characteristics. In this step, unique products and low-volume, low-value inputs are filtered out. In Step 3, managers score the remaining product families on operationalized process and product characteristics. Based on these scores, product families are assigned to four categories: (1) "Global Sourcing" or direct off-shoring; (2) "Source Global, Buy Local" or indirect off-shoring — for example, produced in China but bought through a local agent/distributor; (3) "Buy Regional", or near-shoring; and (4) "Vicinity Buying". Step 4 compares the present total costs of product families with the potential total costs after a switch toward the proposed areas. A case study revealed a significant potential for reduction in total costs for selected product families. In practice, the method serves three ends: (1) it clarifies the various product and process characteristics that are perceived as important by the stakeholders involved; (2) it guides the selection process of potential product families and potential areas in a structured way; and (3) it makes visible the financial results of alternatives to the present way of sourcing.
  • "A Process Analysis of Global Trade Management: An Inductive Approach (invited paper)", Vol. 46, No. 2 (Spring 2010), p. 5.

    This paper describes a new, detailed process model for Global Trade Management (GTM) that contains sufficient detail on cross-border trade processes to estimate the benefits of Information Technology-Enabled Global Trade Management (IT-GTM). Our methodology combines a grounded theory approach with data analysis and analytical modeling. GTM describes the processes required to support cross-border transactions between importers, exporters, their trading partners and governments. IT-GTM is the set of information technologies and software solutions that can be used by companies to carry out their global trading processes in a streamlined manner. We collect data on time reductions for individual trade process steps using IT-GTM and use critical path analysis to calculate the resulting improvements in key metrics such as the manufacture-to-invoice cycle and days-sales outstanding for exporters, and the order-to-receipt cycle for importers. Under reasonably conservative scenarios, the gross savings from IT-GTM amount to 1.7 percent and 0.6 percent of annual sales for exporters and importers, respectively.
  • Accepting Soviet Goods in Countertrade: Problems with Product Quality, Vol. 26, No. 2 (Spring 1990), p. 13.

    This article is not available online.
  • "An Empirical Investigation of Global Sourcing Strategy Effectiveness" Members Only Content, Vol. 36, No. 2 (Spring 2000), p. 29.

    This study was undertaken to address the need for empirical research on global sourcing strategy effectiveness. This article establishes the importance Of and relationships between several factors that drive the effectiveness of global sourcing strategies. Companies are increasingly viewing global sourcing strategies as a means of reducing cost, increasing quality, and Enhancing a firm's overall competitive position. This article uses a structural equation modeling methodology to test an explanatory model of global sourcing strategy effectiveness. Results indicate that global sourcing structures And processes, global sourcing business capabilities, international language capabilities, and top management commitment to global sourcing are critical to the effectiveness of a global sourcing strategy.
  • "Angles of Integration: An Empirical Analysis of the Alignment of Internet-Based Information Technology and Global Supply Chain Management", Vol. 46, No. 2 (Spring 2010), p. 30.

    This paper examines the relationship between the focus and implementation degree of Internet-based information technology (IT) applications and the scope and orientation of process-oriented integration in global supply chains. Using data from 205 plants, which were collected in conjunction with the High Performance Manufacturing project, the degree of supplier and customer integration and its match with the implemented IT instruments supporting inter-organizational collaboration are investigated empirically. Different types of integration are differentiated from each other with the help of factor, percentile and cluster analyses. The focus and degree of IT integration is measured for each of the resulting groups and the alignment of both aspects is analyzed with the help of an approach referred to as the "angles of integration". With respect to supply chain integration and IT implementation, the analysis of different integration strategies shows that most of the plants do not align their IT implementation with their supply chain strategy. The paper helps companies to evaluate the alignment of their use of IT techniques with their global supply chain management emphases. Additionally, possible reasons for a potential mismatch of functional strategies are discussed, giving managers insights for dealing more effectively with a strategic alignment. Furthermore, the paper refines an existing framework for the comparison of different supply chain integration strategies and applies it with IT. Based on the angles of integration, the match of supply chain integration and IT is investigated by statistical analyses.
  • Attitudes Toward Japanese Supply Sources, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Summer 1985), p. 2.

    This article is not available online.
  • British Purchasing Agents and the European Economic Community: Some Empirical Evidence on International Industrial Perceptions, Vol. 7, No. 2 (Spring 1971), p. 56.

    This article is not available online.
  • Buying Authority in Multinational Corporations, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Spring 1978), p. 26.

    This article is not available online.
  • Changing Problems in International Trade, Vol. 2, No. 3 (Summer 1966), p. 43.

    This article is not available online.
  • "Comparisons of the Competitive Position of Canadian, Mexican, and U.S. Suppliers" Members Only Content, Vol. 36, No. 4 (Fall 2000), p. 43.

    Data from 514 Canadian and U.S. purchasing professionals were collected and analyzed to compare Canadian, Mexican, and U.S. suppliers’ performance on important competitive dimensions. U.S. purchasing professionals rated Canadian suppliers lower on the dimensions of cooperation, cost, and quality than they rated U.S. suppliers. Canadian purchasing professionals rated U.S. suppliers low on cooperation. Both Canadian and U.S. suppliers rated Mexican suppliers relatively low on all competitive dimensions. These results are discussed and recommendations for future research are offered.
  • Coping with International Freight Rate Volatility, Vol. 23, No. 3 (Fall 1987), p. 29.

    This article is not available online.
  • Corporate Planning and Procurement in Multi-National Firms, Vol. 10, No. 2 (Spring 1974), p. 55.

    This article is not available online.
  • "Countertrade's Impact on the Supply Function" Members Only Content, Vol. 32, No. 4 (Fall 1996), p. 37.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, many second- and third-world countries accumulated enormous external debt. For countries facing convertible currency shortages or borrowing constraints, countertrade provided a means of circumventing structural trade imbalances. Due to intense global competition and the secrecy surrounding countertrade, little data is available regarding the scale and scope of this trading practice. This article updates the findings of a government survey performed in the mid-1980s and compares several parallel statistics from the earlier and later surveys. The combined information traces a pattern of American involvement in countertrade during the past decade.
  • Countertrade: Another Horizon for Purchasing, Vol. 23, No. 2 (Summer 1987), p. 2.

    This article is not available online.
  • Currency Exchange Rates: Their Impact on Global Sourcing, Vol. 25, No. 3 (Fall 1989), p. 19.

    This article is not available online.
  • Currency Risk Management Strategies for Contracting with Japanese Suppliers, Vol. 29, No. 3 (Summer 1993), p. 17.

    This article is not available online.
  • "Exploring Import Stimulation Behavior: The Case of Cypriot Importers" Members Only Content, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Summer 1998), p. 37.

    This article explores the stimulation behavior of importing firms based on a random sample of 100 Cypriot distributors purchasing from abroad. The findings revealed that the primary factors relating to import motivation were internal-proactive, with sales, profits, and growth stimuli ranked in top positions. Principal components analysis of the initial list of import stimuli produced five underlying dimensions, with "corporate gains/benefits" being the strongest. In examining the effect of internationalization parameters on each of these dimensions relatively significant results were observed, particularly for factors measuring the firm's financial performance in relation to sales of imported goods.
  • Fairness in the Resolution of International Business Disputes, Vol. 31, No. 4 (Fall 1995), p. 32.

    This article is not available online.
  • Foreign Government Influence on Purchasing Policies, Vol. 3, No. 3 (Summer 1967), p. 36.

    This article is not available online.
  • Foreign Trade Zones: A Resource for Material Managers, Vol. 21, No. 4 (Winter 1985), p. 21.

    This article is not available online.
  • Foreign Trade Zones: Circumventing Barriers to Overseas Sources of Supply, Vol. 1, No. 3 (Fall 1965), p. 5.

    This article is not available online.
  • Global Sourcing: A Development Approach, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Spring 1991), p. 2.

    This article is not available online.
  • Import Problems and Monetary Uncertainty, Vol. 9, No. 4 (Fall 1973), p. 36.

    This article is not available online.
  • Industry Overview for the Purchaser of Machine Tools, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Fall 1976), p. 8.

    This article is not available online.
  • "International Countertrade: Has Purchasing's Role Really Changed?" Members Only Content, Vol. 31, No. 4 (Fall 1995), p. 38.

    Countertrade is an important marketing tool that has enabled companies to overcome trade barriers, obstacles of inconvertible currencies and borrowing constraints, and to enter otherwise saturated markets. Purchasing traditionally has played an after-the-fact role in countertrade transactions, most often being brought in after the deal has been consummated, when the details of valuation and disposal of reciprocal goods must be worked out. Countertrade has often led to problems with the disposal of goods taken as payment, a concern for purchasing, since one of purchasing's traditional functions is to find uses for reciprocal purchase obligations.
  • "International Freight Forwarders: Current Activities and Operational Issues" Members Only Content, Vol. 31, No. 3 (Summer 1995), p. 22.

    International freight forwarders (IFFs), an intermediary historically associated with export shipments, are increasingly recognized as offering opportunities for purchasing managers. As a result, purchasing managers need to become familiar with the roles, activities, and responsibilities of forwarders. This article presents the results of a study designed to provide empirical information on IFFs. Major areas of discussion include the functions provided by IFFs, the influence of intermodalism and outsourcing on forwarding operations, and issues associated with the provision of one-stop service.
  • "International Negotiation Strategies of U.S. Purchasing Professionals" Members Only Content, Vol. 29, No. 3 (Summer 1993), p. 40.

    In the present era of globalization, sitting at the negotiation table with suppliers from other nations and cultures is becoming almost routine for many U.S. purchasing professionals. In response to this trend, purchasing professionals must modify their negotiation models to include macro and global considerations. Otherwise, they may suffer from unexpected barriers stemming from differences in culture, business custom, language, preference, and legal and ethical considerations. These barriers may include unnecessary stalemates in reaching an agreement, unwanted requirements and terms resulting from misunderstanding, or a hostile atmosphere detrimental to the achievement of better agreements.
  • "International Purchasing and Global Sourcing — What are the Differences?" Members Only Content, Vol. 39, No. 4 (Fall 2003), p. 26.

    As organizations think about the best way to respond to competitive demands, the development of global strategies and approaches, including global sourcing strategies, will become an increasingly attractive option. Since most organizations do not have in place well-developed global sourcing strategies, improvement opportunities are indeed attractive and largely unrealized. Realizing these opportunities requires a detailed understanding of global sourcing. Achieving this understanding demands replacing anecdotal perceptions and accounts of global sourcing with research-based findings. These findings will help supply managers better understand what it takes to shift from basic international purchasing to integrated global sourcing strategies and approaches.
  • International Purchasing Strategies of Multinational U.S. Firms, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Summer 1991), p. 9.

    This article is not available online.
  • "International Purchasing: Benefits, Requirements, and Challenges" Members Only Content, Vol. 29, No. 2 (Spring 1993), p. 28.

    International sourcing emerged initially as a reactive approach designed to reduce production costs in an effort to neutralize the threat of foreign competition. Today, leading edge firms have shifted the focus of their international sourcing efforts to that of a proactive strategy that pursues a sustainable competitive advantage. This article explores the challenges, requirements, and benefits of international sourcing by means of a brief literature review and a discussion of the results of a survey of purchasing managers. The study focuses on the various aspects of international sourcing that affect its ability to impact a firm's competitiveness.
  • International Purchasing: Characteristics and Implementation, Vol. 20, No. 3 (Fall 1984), p. 2.

    This article is not available online.
  • "International Sourcing: An Australian Perspective" Members Only Content, Vol. 36, No. 1 (Winter 2000), p. 27.

    International sourcing has emerged as an integral part of firms’ competitive advantage building. In spite of increasing management attention to international sourcing, the literature is predominately based on U.S. research. Taking into account the impact of a firm’s operational environment upon its sourcing strategies, the applicability of the existing knowledge outside the United States is highly questionable. This study provides new insights into the understanding of international sourcing from the unique perspective of Australia-located manufacturers. Intra-firm trade practice among Australian subsidiaries of multinationals is also investigated. While the study found distinctive international sourcing behaviors of Australia-located manufacturers, it also discovered a distinctive pattern of international sourcing practice.
  • "International Supply Management Systems — The Impact of Price vs. Non-Price Driven Motives in the United States and Germany" Members Only Content, Vol. 38, No. 3 (Summer 2002), p. 4.

    International sourcing can represent a significant amount of an organization's costs, particularly for manufacturing concerns. Recent studies suggest that international supply management may be relatively more important to German companies than it currently is to their U.S. counterparts, and indicate that a cross-national study may lead to important insights as to why this difference might exist. For example, cultural differences between the United States and Germany may lead to different management approaches (Hofstede 1984; Schwartz 1994). Practitioners can often learn valuable lessons by examining these differences and comparing the activities of managers in their country with those of another. Thus, the objective of this study is to compare the international supply management systems of U.S. organizations with those of their German counterparts, and examine the factors that drive and help to shape an organization's international supply management system.
  • "Internationalizing Procurement: Determinants of Countertrade Involvement" Members Only Content, Vol. 33, No. 2 (Spring 1997), p. 27.

    As protectionist governments around the world have toppled, free trade zones have opened up, and trade barriers have dissolved through either multilateral or free trade agreements, greater numbers of enterprises have looked to foreign markets as sources of supply. At the end of the 1980s, the growth in worldwide sourcing was accompanied by a similar expansion in unconventional trade financing mechanisms, the most prominent of which was countertrade. American companies have historically been reluctant to get involved in countertrade due to its high perceived and real risks. This research examines data from the peak period of countertrade growth to identify likely determinants of business unit countertrade involvement. The impact of global horizontal direct investment on future countertrade activity and the contribution that purchasing can make in developing organizational capabilities to fulfill international trade obligations are discussed.
  • "Logistics Issues in International Sourcing: An Exploratory Study" Members Only Content, Vol. 30, No. 3 (Summer 1994), p. 21.

    Logistics problems have been identified as the biggest obstacle facing U.S. businesses in international sourcing. However, neither the purchasing nor the logistics literature contains much information on logistical considerations in global sourcing. This article presents the results of an exploratory study designed to learn about selected logistics issues in global sourcing. The article also identifies a number of opportunities for further research in the field.
  • Managing Volatile Exchange Rates In International Purchasing, Vol. 24, No. 4 (Winter 1988), p. 13.

    This article is not available online.
  • "Manufacturing Support for Hong Kong Manufacturing Industries in Southern China" Members Only Content, Vol. 36, No. 1 (Winter 2000), p. 35.

    The Hong Kong/Southern China area has been a low-cost manufacturing center. To seize the economic opportunities in the 21st century, Hong Kong must sustain its global competitiveness by further enhancing its manufacturing support competencies. Hong Kong needs strong manufacturing support infrastructures including transportation, information technology, and finance, as well as technical, managerial, and market knowledge competencies. This article identifies relevant manufacturing support activities and examines their importance in developing long-term competitive manufacturing strategies. Sample survey and structured personal interview methodologies are used to accomplish this objective.
  • Offshore Sourcing: Its Nature and Scope, Vol. 28, No. 3 (Summer 1992), p. 2.

    This article is not available online.
  • Procurement for International Manufacturing Plants in Developing Economies, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Winter 1967), p. 5.

    This article is not available online.
  • Purchasing Characteristics and Supplier Performance in Maquiladora Operations, Vol. 29, No. 1 (Winter 1993), p. 25.

    This article is not available online.
  • Purchasing in the International Marketplace: Implications for Operations, Vol. 26, No. 3 (Summer 1990), p. 2.

    This article is not available online.
  • "Purchasing Practice in Dutch Municipalities" Members Only Content, Vol. 34, No. 2 (Spring 1998), p. 31.

    The purchasing function is of great importance for the business community as well as for governmental organizations. In industrial companies purchasing already accounts for 60 to 90 percent of total turnover. This share is expected to grow as companies tend to increasingly outsource their non-core activities.
  • Purchasing Practices in the United Kingdom: A Case Study, Vol. 21, No. 1 (Spring 1985), p. 26.

    This article is not available online.
  • Purchasing's Views on Countertrade, Vol. 28, No. 2 (Spring 1992), p. 10.

    This article is not available online.
  • Source Decision-Making in the Multi-National Company Environment, Vol. 8, No. 1 (Winter 1972), p. 5.

    This article is not available online.
  • Source Preferences for Imported Products, Vol. 17, No. 4 (Winter 1981), p. 28.

    This article is not available online.
  • Sourcing from Less Developed Countries: A Case Study, Vol. 23, No. 3 (Fall 1987), p. 17.

    This article is not available online.
  • "Sourcing Implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement" Members Only Content, Vol. 31, No. 2 (Spring 1995), p. 26.

    This research examines the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) from the perspective of a hypothetical firm operating in the household appliance industry. The location of the lowest cost source of components and the effects on the total systems cost to manufacture and distribute finished products are examined under different levels of economic integration. The research utilizes a network simulation to model optimum supplier sources, purchased item flows, and associated costs to meet total North American demand. The study's results, while highly dependent on the data utilized, indicate that the NAFTA could result in significant changes in supply location and total systems cost for firms with integrated North American operations.
  • Supply Challenges in Africa, Vol. 30, No. 1 (Winter 1994), p. 51.

    This article is not available online.
  • "Sustainable Global Supplier Management: The Role of Dynamic Capabilities in Achieving Competitive Advantage", Vol. 46, No. 2 (Spring 2010), p. 45.

    Organizations face increased pressure from stakeholders to incorporate a plethora of corporate responsibility (CR) and sustainability aspects in their business practices. Legal and extra-legal demands are dynamically changing; almost no organizational function is unaffected. Owing to the outsourcing wave of the last decade, in particular, purchasing and supply management (PSM) plays an ever more important role in assuring sustainable production of the firm's products offered in the marketplace. The supply base of many Western firms has become increasingly global and spend volumes have shifted towards emerging countries. In order to avoid the risk of reputational damage to the buying company, the PSM department must ensure that their international suppliers comply with their corporate codes of conduct, and that environmental and social misconduct at supplier premises does not occur. In this paper, "sustainability" refers to the pursuit of the tripartite of economic, environmental and social performance. We contribute to prior research in the fields of sustainability and CR by extending insights of the dynamic capabilities view to analyze how the PSM function integrates sustainability aspects in its global supplier management processes. Based on four case studies in the chemical industry, we propose that profound sustainable global supplier management (SGSM) capabilities are a source of competitive advantage. These capabilities are path-dependent and particularly valuable when organizations are receptive to external stakeholder pressure. Early movers in the field of SGSM reap competitive benefits to a notable extent as a result of resource accumulation and learning processes over time.
  • "The Apparel Industry Response to "Sweatshop" Concerns: A Review and Analysis of Codes of Conduct" Members Only Content, Vol. 35, No. 3 (Summer 1999), p. 51.

    The apparel industry has faced increased scrutiny in recent years due to governmental and consumer concern over the use of "sweatshop" labor in the production of goods. This is particularly true for those firms that use foreign suppliers. As a result, purchasing managers for U.S. apparel manufacturers and retailers have found themselves faced with the challenge of ensuring that their merchandise is produced under humane, equitable conditions, even though suppliers may be located in distant markets outside of the corporate umbrella. This study reviews industry responses to this challenge. Industry initiatives, such as the Apparel Industry Partnership Agreement and the National Retail Federation Statement of principles on Supplier Legal Compliance, are discussed, and the content of codes of conduct from major manufacturers and retailers are analyzed. The review indicates that while many firms have codes of conduct, there is only limited uniformity across codes, the codes lack substantial detail, and the codes are particularly lax in the area of monitoring and enforcement.
  • "The European Community - "EC 92": Implications for Purchasing Managers" Members Only Content, Vol. 29, No. 2 (Spring 1993), p. 19.

    There has been considerable discussion among purchasing and materials professionals concerning the effects the European Community's extensive trade unification program may have on their operations following its implementation at the close of 1992 (EC 92). This article presents the findings of related research conducted in Europe during 1991. After a brief overview of the European Community history, organization, and basic trade issues, the author discusses twelve possible implications for purchasing/materials management operations within both the United States and the EC. Particular attention is given to requirements/standards determination and EC sourcing.
  • "The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Revisited: Attempting to Regulate "Ethical Bribes" in Global Business" Members Only Content, Vol. 30, No. 3 (Summer 1994), p. 14.

    The American post-Watergate political climate necessitated the prohibition of bribes and gifts to foreign officials as a method of influencing business and government decisions. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) (1977) was passed to help define appropriate ethical and legal behavior, limiting the payment of fees, gifts, or bribes to low ranking government officials, and mandating financial reporting of such expenditures. The issue of moral imperialism, forcing U.S. standards on others, remains unresolved. Few countries have passed similar legislation. Case law has strengthened the FCPA, allowing competitors to sue for lost business if bribery swayed a significant decision.
  • The Nuances of Negotiating Overseas, Vol. 25, No. 1 (Spring 1989), p. 56.

    This article is not available online.
  • "The Relative Importance of Supplier Selection Criteria: The Case of Electronic Components Procurement in Japan" Members Only Content, Vol. 34, No. 2 (Spring 1998), p. 19.

    In academic articles, and even more so in the popular business press, Japanese industrial purchasing behavior has been painted with a single brush. The Japanese purchaser-supplier relationship is typically described as cooperative, interdependent, integrated, and, often, exclusive. Outside sellers, especially non-Japanese companies, are rarely able to penetrate this relationship. However, this characterization of Japanese industrial purchasing was always overstated. It may have accurately depicted purchaser-supplier relations in a small number of industries, most notably the automobile industry. But the portrayal failed to distinguish between different sectors of the Japanese economy, not to mention individual companies or products. Furthermore, although the pace has been painfully slow, many segments of the Japanese market have been opening up to foreign competition.
  • The Role of Purchasing and Materials Management in International Trade, Vol. 20, No. 2 (Summer 1984), p. 7.

    This article is not available online.
  • The Single Source Issue: U.S. and Japanese Sourcing Strategies, Vol. 28, No. 1 (Winter 1992), p. 2.

    This article is not available online.
  • The Soviet Industrial Purchasing Agent, Vol. 5, No. 4 (Fall 1969), p. 41.

    This article is not available online.
  • The Worldmindedness of U.S. Purchasing Professionals, Vol. 20, No. 3 (Fall 1984), p. 23.

    This article is not available online.
  • U.S. Buyers' Relationships with Pacific Rim Sellers, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Winter 1991), p. 2.

    This article is not available online.
  • Worldwide Sourcing: Assessment and Execution, Vol. 28, No. 4 (Fall 1992), p. 9.

    This article is not available online.